This topic is common to all specifications, it is expected that students know about the water cycle, the difference between hard and soft water, the effects of hard water and how to remove ions that cause hardness. This includes the relative solubility of different salts in water
There are good opportunities in this topic for students to carry out research and practical investigations.
Whilst this list provides a source of information and ideas for experimental work, it is important to note that recommendations can date very quickly. Do NOT follow suggestions which conflict with current advice from CLEAPSS, SSERC or recent safety guides. eLibrary users are responsible for ensuring that any activity, including practical work, which they carry out is consistent with current regulations related to Health and Safety and that they carry an appropriate risk assessment. Further information is provided in our Health and Safety guidance