These resources have been reviewed and selected by STEM Learning’s team of education specialists for factual accuracy and relevance to teaching STEM subjects in UK schools.


This set of resources exemplifies ways in which practical work can be used alongside a pedagogical approach known as argumentation. Argumentation is a core practice used by communities of research scientists, and it is through these activities that science knowledge is developed and agreed. Argumentation activities can be used in school science to mirror this practice.

There is also a strong evidence base highlighting argument and collaborative discussion as key social processes through which we can learn. This is because engagement in these activities can be an effective way of making knowledge explicit, challenging misconceptions, building new knowledge, and increasing articulation. 

Show health and safety information

Please be aware that resources have been published on the website in the form that they were originally supplied. This means that procedures reflect general practice and standards applicable at the time resources were produced and cannot be assumed to be acceptable today. Website users are fully responsible for ensuring that any activity, including practical work, which they carry out is in accordance with current regulations related to health and safety and that an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out.

Information on the permitted use of this resource is covered by the Category Three Content section in STEM Learning’s Terms and conditions.