Published in 2015, a working paper from the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia investigated the persistence of effects of early childhood interventions and asked whether these effects fade systematically. The study found that “by the end of kindergarten [Year 1] children who attended preschool are no longer outperforming on measures of reading and math relative to
their peers.” The study used two data sets: a 2010 kindergarten cohort, which the authors used to explore the relationship between attending preschool and cognitive and behavioural skills at school entry and through first grade; and a 1998 kindergarten cohort, which enabled comparisons of the effects of preschool attendance in 1998 and 2010.

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