DNA Sequencing

From the Wellcome Trust, these animations show three different methods for the sequencing of DNA.

The Sanger method, developed in 1975, illustrates an early way of determining a DNA sequence. Fluorescent bases are incorporated into fragments of DNA that are made from the sample being sequenced. Analysis of the fragments enables the sequence of bases in the original strand of DNA to be determined. Although it is slow in comparison to more modern methods, its development was a major breakthrough in DNA sequencing.

Developed in 2005 and 2006, the 454 and Illumina methods allow for greater automation and speed of sequencing. Both methods use fragments of DNA attached to a solid substrate. This allows DNA sequences to be determined much more quickly than the Sanger method. The Illumina method takes just half a day to read one gigabase and can run multiple samples simultaneously.

The animations contain quite a high level of detail and are suited to students following post-16 biology courses.

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