Listing all results (1935)

Cytoplasmic factors

This animation shows how cytoplasmic factors play a significant part in determining how a cell develops. This segment discusses their importance in turning the appropriate genes on and off for proper development.

Used with permission from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Copyright (2006).  All rights...

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

This video explains polymerase chain reaction.  PCR is a standard laboratory technique that allows amplification of specific segments of DNA based on complementarity.

Used with permission from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Copyright (2010).  All rights reserved. www.BioInteractive.org.

This...

Cloning 101

The ability to create a clone used to be science fiction. Dr. Ian Wilmut's group changed that in 1997 with the creation of Dolly the sheep. Since then the debate on applying the technique to clone human beings has been ongoing. Based on all the discussion, it may sound like cloning, human...

DNA restriction

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends.

This...

Reading genes and genomes

Dr. Eric Lander takes us on a tour of this remarkable genetic century, describing the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies and information science. The 20th century opened with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work on inheritance. By the close of the century, the human genome was almost fully sequenced....

Shotgun sequencing

In shotgun sequencing many copies of the entire genome are "blown up" into millions of small fragments. Each small fragment is sequenced. Powerful computers then assemble the individual fragments into the original configuration. Repeat sequences pose a problem for this approach because their sizes can be much...

Small-molecule microarrays

Microarray technology is useful for screening many small molecules at once. DNA microarray can be used to measure the expression level of many genes simultaneously. DNA microarrays, for example, have been helpful in diagnosing different tumors. The widespread use of microarray technology promises to guide research...

Gel electrophoresis

In the early days of DNA manipulation, DNA fragments were laboriously separated by gravity. In the 1970s, the powerful tool of DNA gel electrophoresis was developed. This process uses electricity to separate DNA fragments by size as they migrate through a gel matrix. Gel electrophoresis can be used to...

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA.

This resource is part of the ...

Sanger method of DNA sequencing

Fred Sanger developed the first technique for sequencing DNA. DNA is replicated in the presence of chemically altered versions of the A, C, G, and T bases. These bases stop the replication process when they are incorporated into the growing strand of DNA, resulting in varying lengths of short DNA. These short DNA...

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