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Defence and survival


Our immune system depends upon effective proteins, such as immunoglobulins and those involved in blood clotting. But proteins can also be agents of harm to our cells, including venom and prions, or provide potential medical therapies.


Proteins are involved in many complex systems – controlling our growth, hunger and sugar in our blood.


Explore enzymes from adenosine triphosphate synthase to enzymes specific to extremophiles, digestive enzymes and the role of immobilized enzymes.


Haemoglobin is a vital protein that transports oxygen around our bodies – how does it do this, and what role does the structure of proteins play in transport across cell membranes?

Structure and movement

All proteins have a similar basic repeated structure based on three amino acids. This article explores collagen, why we need proteins in our diet and the formation of microtubules.

Protrump cards

Our Protump cards are useful for learning about and comparing different proteins

Experimenting in space

Exploiting the lack of gravity in experiments carried out in space can yield information that might take much longer to find on earth on earth, but how is it achieved?

Ethics of space biology

Four big issues:

  • The case for human space flight
  • Who owns space?
  • Should we really put anything into space?

Genetic selection for screening astronauts and the implications

Beginnings of life

These articles explore how life on earth began, consider the importance of carbon in our biology and whether there might be an alternative.  

Investigating films – data and questions

Use this pdf to support independent analysis of data from the three Big picture films:

Responding to extremes

Is there life in there?

What’s your limit?


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