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Keeping Clean Unit Guide

This Salters’ Chemistry Course unit from the University of York Science Education Group covered:
* The use of soaps and soapless detergents.
* Emulsions and the action of emulsifiers.
* The hardness of water.
* The manufacture and use of cosmetics,...

Buildings Unit Guide

This Salters’ Chemistry Course unit from the University of York Science Education Group covered:
* Properties of building materials including their reactions with acid.
* Factors which affect rate of reaction.
* The relationship between the properties and...

Making and Using Electricity Unit Guide

This Salters’ Chemistry Course unit from the University of York Science Education Group covered:
* The conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy.
* The construction and operation of electrochemical cells.
* The conversion of electrical energy to...

Burning and Bonding Unit Guide

This Salters’ Chemistry Course unit from the University of York Science Education Group covered:
* causes and control of fire
* flash points & controlled burning
* energy changes in chemical reactions
* bond breaking and making exothermic and...

Energy Today and Tomorrow Unit Guide

This Salters’ Chemistry Course unit from the University of York Science Education Group covered:
* Sources and uses of energy.
* Conservation of energy.
* Alternative and renewable energy sources.
* Solar energy as a fundamental source of biomass...

The Preparation of Soap

This Unilever Laboratory Experiment describes the preparation of soap from a mixture of cooking oil and dripping. The leaflet was first published in 1964 and so lacks modern safety guidance. The procedure is authentic; it is designed to produce a convincing sample of soap. This means that it could be the basis of...

The Preparation of Sodium Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate

The method of preparation of a sulphonate paste described in this Unilever Laboratory Experiment is basically the same as that used by Unilever in the large-scale production of soapless detergents at the time of publication in 1964. The required reactants included an alkylbenzene hydrocarbon supplied by the...

The Hydrogenation of Soft Oils

Details of this challenging experiment were published in this leaflet from the Unilever Laboratory Experiment in 1965. Requirements included a pyrophoric nickel catalyst supplied by Unilever, hydrogen from a cylinder and a vegetable oil treated with activated charcoal to remove impurities. The necessary apparatus...

Determination of the Total Hardness of Water

This Unilever Laboratory Experiment, published in 1970, describes the procedure for a titration with EDTA and Eriochrome Black T to determine the total hardness of water. The details cover the preparation of a standard solution of EDTA as well as the steps of the titration.

Isolation of Oil of Clove Followed by Extraction of Eugenol

This Unilever Laboratory Experiment, published in 1966, describes the use of steam distillation to separate oil from crushed cloves. The method for extracting the eugenol from the oil used carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane) and so would need to be modified before this could now be done in schools and...

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