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Green Genes – DNA Inside Chloroplasts

One of a series of articles for post-16 students published by Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS). Chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic bacteria and contain DNA encoding a remnant of their original bacterial genes. 

This booklet discusses how the study of chloroplast genes has helped biologists...

Plants Fight Back - Physical and Chemical Defences in Plants

One of a series of articles for post-16 students published by Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS). Plants attacked by herbivores or pathogens respond by synthesising additional physical and chemical defences and so increasing their resistance to subsequent assaults. The induced defences are initiated close to the...

The response of leaf discs to green light

Produced by Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this investigation enables students to investigate the response of leaf discs from sun and shade plants to green light

Leaf discs from a sun plant and a shade plant are put in a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. The rate of photosynthesis is seen by how...

Competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition

Produced by Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this activity enables students to investigate the effect of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on the enzyme beta-galactosidase.

The chemical ONPG (o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside) is degraded by the enzyme beta-galactosidase. The product is...

Estimating the glucose concentration of a solution

Produced by Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), in this investigation, students look at the concentration of glucose in isotonic sports drinks. This enables students to see if the drinks are, in fact, isotonic with the blood.

In this investigation, students first produce a standard curve by testing...

The effects of mineral concentrations on plant growth

Produced by Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this activity enables students to investigate the effects of different concentrations of nitrates, phosphates and potassium on the growth of radish seedlings.

After sowing, the radish seedlings are kept well watered, in a warm temperature under constant...

Investigating potato cyst nematodes

From Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this practical activity was developed for Scottish Highers specifications, but the protocol can equally well be used for other specifications. 

Students look at potato cyst nematodes, a serious pest of food crops. This is a good example of parasitism to study as...

Examining mycorrhizae

From Science & Plants for Schools (SAPS), this practical activity was developed for Scottish Highers specifications, but the protocol can equally well be used for other specifications. 

Students prepare and stain roots, and then examine them to establish the frequency of mycorrhizae. 

The...

Protoplast isolation

This protocol describes the process of isolating protoplasts from plant cells and then fusing the protoplasts in order to carry out further investigations. 

Plants from distantly related or unrelated species are unable to reproduce sexually as their genomes are incompatible. Protoplasts from unrelated...

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