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Water pressure at work in London

In this lesson students look at the related concepts of pressure and force (pressure = Force/ Area), units used, measurement and how a large force can result from pressure acting over a given area. They will move from calculating the weight (under gravity) of a column of water or air to the pressure of this as...

In all directions

This lesson shows that pressure in fluids acts in all directions and therefore pushes in all directions on any object floating or submerged in the fluid.

Learning objectives:

Students could: explain why pressure with depth variation for water is different from the variation of pressure with height...

The machines of the working river

If a large force is needed, a simple machine can be used to convert a small force into a large force but requires that the small force move a larger distance and the large force a correspondingly smaller distance. The amount by which the small force is multiplied is known as the mechanical advantage. This principle...

Engineering the future of the barrier

In activity, students produce an Engineering ‘specification’ based on application of their science and mathematics knowledge and understanding. This will be put into the context of risks to London from flooding and the need for improved flood defences due to increased risk of higher floods due to rising sea levels...

London refuelled chemistry teaching pack

With a population of over eight million and many people commuting to London for work every day, transport is a key issue for everyone.   Modern technology has developed to cope with the movement of such large numbers of people. However the reliance on combustion for transport over time has resulted in problems of...

What powers London transport

Different fuels are considered and how energy to move transport is released during combustion. This lesson also looks at the story of steam tube trains and our changing understanding of the effects of emissions from combustion on health.

Learning outcomes:

  • Could represent combustion reactions...

Why the congestion charge and low emission zones?

This lesson introduces ideas about combustion, incomplete combustion and the production of carbon monoxide, particulates and their relationship to health.

Learning outcomes:

  • Students could produce and write symbol equations for the combustion of carbon and methane using models.
  • They...

Best energy source for London buses

In this lesson students investigate different fuels both practically and as a research project. This includes energy output, ease of combustion, the cost to environment in extraction, economic cost, ease of delivery and related factors.

Learning outcomes:

  • Students could calculate the energy...

What is the carbon cycle

Students investigate and evaluate the development of new technologies to reduce pollution from combustion: catalytic converters, electric cars and fuel cells. Cradle to grave cycles of use are  considered, such as the use of incineration of waste to produce electricity for transport.

Learning outcomes:


Fuel use through time

This resources suggests several activities and visits which enable students to find information about fuel use through time and about the consequences of the use of those fuels.

By visiting museums or exploring the local area around the school, learning outcomes could include:

  • evaluate the...


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