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Evolution of the Y chromosome

How did the human Y chromosome become so small relative to its X counterpart? This animation depicts the 300-million-year odyssey of the sex chromosomes that began when the proto X and Y were an identical pair.

Used with permission from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Copyright (2001).  All rights...

Damage to DNA leads to mutation

Reactive molecules, such as free radicals, and solar ultraviolet radiation can lead to mutations in DNA. Most mutations are corrected, but in rare cases mutations can accumulate and cause diseases such as cancer.

Used with permission from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Copyright (2003).  All rights...

Mismatch repair

This animation illustrates how mistakes made during DNA replication are repaired. 

During DNA replication mistakes can occur as DNA polymerase copies the two strands. The wrong nucleotide can be incorporated into one of the strands causing a mismatch. Normally there should be an "A" opposite a "T" and "G"...

Human genomics: a new guide for medicine

Dr. Lander explores human genetic variation and how it may affect individual susceptibility to certain diseases. With the exception of identical twins, no two human genomes are exactly the same. But how different are they? Are two humans more alike than two orangutans? Dr. Lander explores human genetic variation...

How to sequence a genome

How to sequence a genome is a series of short step by step videos which break down the process on sequencing into mapping, building libraries, sub-cloning, E. coli, preparing DNA, sequencing, reading results. 

Our molecular selves includes a dynamic 3-D video which takes you inside for a close...

GENIE jumping genes

The aim of this activity is for students to use tiddlywinks to represent sections of jumping genes, which they then flick onto a poster which is representative of a section of the human genome. Where their "gene" lands either will or will not disrupt the gene and may then cause disease. An accompanying PowerPoint...

BRAF: from gene to cancer therapy

This film tells the story of how DNA sequencing was used to identify the gene BRAF. Clinical researcher Ultan McDermott tells the story of how scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute discovered a specific mutation in the BRAF gene, which is found in around half of malignant melanoma cases. He...

Paintbrush gene

In two related Drosophila species, a so-called paintbrush gene is activated to "paint" the pigment on the body. In one species, an extra switch activates the gene, resulting in spotted wings.

Paintbrush Gene Backgroundcx5pa4...

From DNA to protein

This 3D animation shows how proteins are made in the cell from the information in the DNA code. 

This resource is part of the Post 16 genetics and genomics collection.

 

DNA transcription (advanced detail)

This animation shows the process of copying DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA), transcription. Transcription factors assemble at the promoter region of a gene, bringing an RNA polymerase enzyme to form the transcription initiation complex. Activator proteins at the enhancer region of DNA then activate the transcription...

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