Unit P2: Equilibrium I: Principles *suitable for home teaching*

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Equilibrium I: Principles was one of the physical chemistry units in the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC) scheme that was sponsored by the Inner London Education Authority and first published by John Murray in 1983. This was a study guide, not a textbook.

In level one, this resource deals with the qualitative aspects of equilibrium. and shows how to apply Le Chatelier's principle.

In level two, the treatment introduces the equilibrium law and shows how to apply the equilibrium law to a number of different systems, including the equilibrium between a slightly soluble salt and its saturated solution, and the distribution of a solute between two different solvents.

Contents

Level one

Equilibrium systems
* Reversible reactions
* Types of equilibrium system
* Phase
* Equilibrium in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

Characteristics of the equilibrium state
* Why equilibrium systems are 'closed'
* How equilibrium systems are established

Factors affecting the position of equilibrium
* Position of equilibrium
* Le Chatelier's principle
* The effect on equilibrium of changing concentrations
* Experiment 1 - the effect of concentration changes on equilibria
* Pure solids and pure liquids in equilibrium systems
* The effect on equilibrium of changing temperature
* The effect on equilibrium of changing pressure
* The effect on equilibrium of catalysts

Level two

The equilibrium law
* Calculating the value of an equilibrium constant
* When volume can be omitted from an equilibrium law expression
* Experiment 2 - determining an equilibrium constant
* Computer simulation of the ethyl ethanoate equilibrium
* Various numerical problems involving equilibrium constants
* Problems involving quadratic equations

The equilibrium constant, Kp
* The effect on an equilibrium system of changing pressure
* Computer simulation of sulphuric acid manufacture
* Average molar mass of a gaseous mixture

The variation of equilibrium constant with temperature

Solubility products for slightly soluble salts
* Calculating solubility product from solubility
* Experiment 3 - determining a solubility product
* Calculating solubility from solubility product
* Limitations of solubility product theory
* The common ion effect
* Experiment 4 - illustrating the common ion effect

Distribution equilibrium
* Experiment 5 - distribution equilibrium

Appendix one
* Additional exercises

Appendix two
* The relationship between the equilibrium constants, Kc and Kp

The relationship between K and standard free energy changes
The relationship between K and standard enthalpy changes

Answers to exercises

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