Further organic chemistry 1

In the organic chemistry of the second year of the A level course students extend their study of functional group chemistry to include the carbonyl group, and carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The study of isomerism is further developed by adding optical isomerism, the second type of stereoisomerism, to that of geometric isomerism studied in the first year of the course.

The mechanisms covered in this list are;  nucleophilic addition to aldehydes and ketones, and addition-elimination to carboxylic acids and their derivatives. In both mechanisms the initial step is addition of a nucleophile to the carbonyl carbon. In the case of aldehydes and ketones hydrogen and alkyl groups are not good enough leaving groups for the intermediate to undergo elimination to restore the carbonyl group and so an alcohol is produced.

Aldehydes and ketones, and carboxylic acids and derivatives, share the carbonyl functional group and therefore are compiled together in this list.

Arenes, nitrogen containing compounds, and molecules of life are collected together in the list Further organic chemistry 2.

Whilst this list provides a source of information and ideas for experimental work, it is important to note that recommendations can date very quickly. Do NOT follow suggestions which conflict with current advice from CLEAPSS, SSERC or other recent safety guides. eLibrary users are responsible for ensuring that any activity, including practical work, which they carry out is consistent with current regulations related to Health and Safety and that they carry an appropriate risk assessment. Further information is provided in our Health and Safety guidance.’