DNA, genes and chromosomes

A collection of resources covering DNA, genes and chromosomes. This collection is part of the Post 16 genetics and genomics collection.


Building blocks of DNA

This animation shows that Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) are the components of nucleic acid that make up DNA.


Chargaff's ratio

This animation looks at research which led to solving the structure of DNA.  In 1950, Erwin Chargaff published a paper stating that in the DNA of any given species, the ratio of adenine to thymine is equal, as is the ratio of cytosine to guanine. This became known as Chargaff's ratio, and it was an important clue...

Coding sequences in DNA

Of the 3 billion letters in the human genome, only 1% directly code for proteins. Of the rest, about 25% make up genes and their regulatory elements. The functions of the remaining letters are still unclear.

Used with permission from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Copyright (2003).  All rights...

DNA packaging

This animation describes how DNA is tightly packed in the nucleus of every cell. DNA wraps around special proteins called histones, which form loops of DNA called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin in turn forms larger loops and coils to form...


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